1. General

2004. Frocks and Fripperies: Ladies’ Dress and Accessories from the Seventeenth to Twentieth Century. Lincoln, Usher Gallery.
Arnold, J. 2008. Patterns of Fashion 4. The Cut and Construction of Linen Shirts, Smocks, Neckwear, Headwear and Accessories for Men and Women c.1540-1660. London, Macmillan.
Cumming, V. 1998. The Visual History of Costume: From Hats to Shoes – 400 Years of Costume Accessories. London, Batsford.
Evans, G. 2008. ‘Marriage à la mode, an eighteenth-century wedding dress, hat and shoes set from the Olive Matthews Collection, Chertsey Museum’, Costume, 42, 50-65.
Halls, Z. 1973. Coronation Costume and Accessories 1685-1953. London, H.M.S.O.
Mee, S. 2004. ‘The clothing of Margaret Parnell and Millicent Crayforde, 1569-1575’, Costume, 38, 26-40.

The writer discusses the clothing of Margaret, Parnell, and Millicent Crayforde from 1569 to 1575. The probate accounts of Edward Crayforde, gentleman of Great Mongeham in Kent, England, offer information relating to the provision of clothing for his three orphaned daughters. One of these accounts consists almost entirely of monies paid for their clothing for the period 1569 to 1575 until each girl, in turn, reached the age of 18. This detailed clothing information is of particular interest as it relates to a period covered by frequent sumptuary legislation, which aimed to stipulate the types of fabrics and trimmings that could be worn by members of each level of society. The writer examines in detail the clothing of the Crayforde girls in the order that they would have been dressed, as well as discussing hose, shoes, and other accessories. She concludes, among other things, that the type of outfits made for the three sisters, particularly Millicent, suggests that they had considerable pretensions to fashion.

Morris, R. 2001. Headwear, Footwear and Trimmings of the Common Man and Woman 1580-1660. Bristol, Stuart Press.

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2. Headwear, Hairstyles, Wigs

Baker, M. 2004. ‘‘No cap or wig but a thin hair upon it’: Hair and the male portrait bust in England around 1750’, Eighteenth-Century Studies, 38(1), 63-77.

The representation of hair has always been of great importance for sculpture. This is especially true of the portrait bust, not least because this was a genre in which the head was represented in three dimensions and viewed from close quarters. This essay examines the representation of hair on male portrait busts, which became popular in England around 1750. Though less elaborate than the hair on later eighteenth-century busts of women, the hair on male busts, ranging from wigs to no hair at all, played a significant role in mediating how the sculptural portrait was to be viewed. While represented hair might at times relate to current fashions, the short hair frequently used on classicizing busts of men had an independent sculptural existence. Seemingly part of the represented body, such hair was also a constructed convention. In its very ambiguity, hair of this sort alerted the spectator to the nature of the bust as a representation, at once a likeness of great immediacy and a highly artificial genre. This in its turn involved an elaborate play with those sculptural techniques used to represent hair, or its absence.

Buck, A. 1993. ‘Mantua makers and milliners: women making and selling clothes in eighteenth century Bedfordshire’, Bedfordshire Historical Record Society, 72, 142-155.

Based on records such as parish registers and wills, looking particularly at the contribution of women.

Buckland, K. 1979. ‘The Monmouth Cap’, Costume, 13, 23-37.

Discusses knitted caps of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Buckland, K. 1997. ‘Monmouth caps in America’, Ars Textrina, XXVII, 5-14.

Considers the evidence for the export of the knitted caps to the New England colonies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Clabburn, P. 1977. ‘A provincial milliner’s shop in 1785’, Costume, 11.
Clark, F. 1988. Hats. London, Batsford.
Cliff, K. 2001. ‘Mr Lock, hatter to the ladies, 1783-1805’, Costume, 59-65.

A brief survey of hats ordered by lady customers of James Lock’s hat-making business in London. Founded by Robert Davis in 1676, this business was eventually inherited by his son-in-law, James Lock I, upon Davis’s death. Lock ran it from 1783 to 1805, taking his son George James Lock into partnership in 1794 and retiring shortly afterward to leave his son to carry on it. A number of surviving ledgers covering the period between 1783 and 1805 provide a picture of the different ways in which ladies ‘shopped’ at Lock’s and the way in which families remained as loyal customers. A brief discussion of hat types produced by the business is followed by a list of ladies’ hat orders.

Corfield, P. J. 1989. ‘Dress for deference and dissent: hats and the decline of hat honour’, Costume, 23, 64-79.

The article focuses in particular on the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Corner, D. 1991. ‘The tyranny of fashion: the case of the felt-hatting trade in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries’, Textile History, 22(2), 153-178.
Cross, L. 2008. ‘Fashionable hair in the eighteenth century: theatricality and display’. In: G. Biddle-Perry and S. Cheang. eds. Styling, Culture and Fashion, Oxford, Berg.
Davin, R. 1990. 1st Floor: Millinery. 50 Hats from the Rougemont House Collections. Exeter, Museums of Exeter.

An introduction to Exeter’s collection of over 350 hats, including rare examples from the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. A brief essay discusses changing styles from 1760-1970, and the fifty hats chosen for exhibition are described in detail, with some illustrations.

de Marly, D. 1975. ‘The vocabulary of the female headdress, 1678-1713’, Waffen-und Kostümkunde, 17, 61-69.
Devitt, C. 2007. ‘‘To Cap it All’: The Waterford Cap of Maintenance’, Costume, 41, 11-25.

The article introduces the cap and letter dated the 30 April 1536 sent to the mayor and inhabitants of the City of Waterford by King Henry VIII, traces the history of caps of maintenance in England prior to that and points to its apparent uniqueness being officially styled as a cap of maintenance in a royal letter for use in mayoral ceremonial.

It also introduces William Wyse the bearer of the cap; educated at court and later Mayor of Waterford. It discusses Wyse and Waterford’s loyalty during the Geraldine rebellion, how the cap was a token of the king’s recognition of Waterford, and grants of land and a knighthood to Wyse. A record of the history and use of the cap is made, comparing it with contemporary royal caps of maintenance and caps/hats of fashion. Its assembly, materials and decoration are recorded and discussed.

Hayward, M. 2002. ‘The sign of some degree? The social, financial and sartorial significance of male headwear at the court of Henry VIII and Edward VI’, Costume, 36, 1-17.

The writer examines a cross section of male headwear worn at the courts of Henry VIII and Edward VI. More so than any other garment, in 16th-century England the hat was integrally linked with social standing, age, and affluence, and it was therefore an essential accessory for all but the poorest man. The writer considers the significance of male headwear in three contexts: as a record of materials and makers, an indication of individuality or corporate identity, and a mark of authority or dependence. Noting that a great deal of the evidence is concerned with the monarch and the opulence of royal headwear, she discusses Henry VIII’s weakness for hats, noting that he used them to demonstrate his place at the top of the social order.

Jenkins, G. 1988. ‘Felt hat-making in Ceredigion’, Folk Life, 26, 43-53.

Discusses the felt-hat-making business in Cardiganshire which flourished in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

Mackenzie, A. 2004. Hats and Bonnets from Snowshill, one of the World’s Leading Collections of Costume and Accessories of the 18th and 19th Centuries. London, National Trust.
Nevinson, J. L. ed. 1970. The Exact Dress of the Head, 1725-6, by Bernard Lens. Costume Society Extra Series No. 2, Costume Society.

30 monochrome plates reproduced from a book of drawings in the Victoria and Albert Museum.

Nichols, M. J. 1996. ‘Straw plaiting and the straw hat industry in Britain’, Costume, 30, 112-124.

Covers the period from the late seventeenth to late nineteenth century.

Pointon, M. 1993. ‘Dangerous excrescences: wigs, hair and masculinity’. Hanging the Head: Portraiture and Social Formation in Eighteenth-Century England, New Haven and London, Yale University Press, 107-139.
Rosenthal, A. ed. 2004. Hair (Special Issue of Eighteenth-Century Studies, Volume 38, Number 1, Fall 2004). Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press.
Smith, J. H. 1980. The Development of the English Felt and Silk Hat Trades 1500-1912. (Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Manchester.)

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3. Scarves, Furs, ‘Wraps’

Hunt, J. 1963. ‘Jewelled neck furs and ‘Flohpelze’’, Pantheon, XXI.
Mackrell, A. 1986. Shawls, Stoles and Scarves. London, Batsford.
Sherrill, T. 2006. ‘Fleas, fur and fashion: zibellini as luxury accessories in the Renaissance’, Medieval Clothing and Textiles, 2, 121-150.
Veale, E. 1994. ‘On so-called ‘flea furs’’, Costume, 28, 10-13.

Short article on the furs worn during the sixteenth century that came to be known as ‘Flopelze’ or ‘flea furs’.

Weiss, F. 1970. ‘Bejewelled fur tippets – and the Palatine Fashion’, Costume, 4.

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4. Bags, Purses, Pockets

Burman, B. and Denbo, S. 2006. Pockets of History: the Secret Life of an Everyday Object, Bath Museum of Costume.
Foster, V. 1982. Bags and Purses. London, Batsford.
Harrison, A. and Gill, K. 2002. ‘An eighteenth-century detachable pocket and baby’s cap, found concealed in a wall cavity: conservation and research’, Textile History, 33(2), 177-194.

A detachable pocket and a baby’s cap found in an 18th-century house in Abingdon, England, are examined. These textiles were found concealed in a wall cavity alongside a collection of objects that includes coins and trade tokens. The centuries-old practice of deliberately concealing objects within the structure of buildings seems to have been a worldwide tradition that has several explanations, including protection against evil spirits. This seems to be confirmed by the presence of hops filling the wall cavity in which the objects were found in Abingdon, as, during the 18th century, hops were believed to have protective and healing properties. Both the pocket and the cap are in a style typical of the first half of the 18th century, and both suggest lower-class origins but with aspiration toward a higher status. The writer goes on to describe the conservation treatment applied to the pocket and the cap for short-term display and long-term storage.

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5. Gloves

1980. A Handful of History. Catalogue of the exhibition of decorative gloves from the Spence Collection, arranged by the Worshipful Company of Glovers and the Museum of London at Austin, Reed, Regent Street, London. R. S. Austin Reed. London.
Byrde, P. and Brears, P. 1990. ‘A pair of James I’s gloves’, Costume, 24, 34-42.
Cumming, V. 1982. Gloves. London, Batsford.
Gibson, E. 1919. ‘Collections visited: some gloves from Mr Robert Spence’s collection: Part I’, Connoisseur, LV (October).

Robert Spence (1870-1964) was an artist and illustrator who collected examples of original costume to assist in his work, in particular seventeenth-century gloves with rich trimmings and embroidered decoration.

Gibson, E. 1920. ‘Collections visited: some gloves from Mr Robert Spence’s collection: Part II’, Connoisseur, LVIII (September).

Robert Spence (1870-1964) was an artist and illustrator who collected examples of original costume to assist in his work, in particular seventeenth-century gloves with rich trimmings and embroidered decoration.

Tittler, R. 2006. ‘Freemen’s gloves and civic authority: the evidence from post-Reformation portraiture’, Costume, 40, 13-20.

The writer examines the symbolic use of gloves in the portraits of English civic officials from the post-Reformation period between ca. 1560, when civic portraits first started to appear with any frequency, and ca. 1640. Townspeople and others would have understood gloves worn, displayed, or portrayed in the civic context as reflective of the personal status of a freeman as well as of the civic authority of the freemanry as the civic and often corporate governing body of the borough community. In addition, they would have understood the symbolic distinction between the gloves of a mayor and those worn by members of the landed elite. Therefore, the display of gloves in civic portraits, along with the civic type of portrait itself, offers an important, widespread, and widely understood claim to the civic identity of specific towns and to the growing authority of civic bodies in general at that time.

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6. Fans

Alexander, H. 2001. The Fan Museum. Lingfield, The Fan Museum (London) in association with Third Millenium Publishing.
Alexander, H. 2002. Fans. Princes Risborough, Shire.

A new version, with coloured illustrations, of the original publication of 1984.

Armstrong, N. 1974. A Collector’s History of Fans, Studio.
Cust, L. 1893. Catalogue of the collection of fans and fan-leaves presented to the Trustees of the British Museum by the Lady Charlotte Schreiber. London, Longmans & Co.
Hart, A. and Taylor, E. 1998. Fans. London, Victoria and Albert Museum.
Newman, J., Leveque, M., et al. 1987. ‘An interspecialty approach to the conservation of multi-media objects: the conservation of a collection of fans’. Preprints of Papers Presented at the Fifteenth Annual Meeting of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, May 20-24, 1987 American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, 85-98.

A team of conservators with expertise in textiles, objects, and paper, was formed to plan and execute the conservation of the 150 most significant fans from the collection of costume accessories of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. The fans date from the 16th century to the present, and originate in the United States, Europe, and the Far East. Materials and construction, and damages resulting from use as costume accessories, storage and display, and previous repair, are described. Methods of conservation are given.

Roberts, J., Suttcliffe, P., et al. 2005. Unfolding Pictures: Fans in the Royal Collection. London, Royal Collection.

Includes colour illustrations of fans dating from the eighteenth to the twentieth century.

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7. Footwear, Hosiery

1981. Catalogue of Shoe and Other Buckles in Northampton Museum, Northampton Borough Council Museums and Art Gallery.
Belfanti, C. M. 1996. ‘Fashion and innovation: the origins of the Italian hosiery industry in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries’, Textile History, 27(2), 132-147.

The production technology of ‘stockings in the English style’ spread throughout Italy in the later seventeenth century. The article considers knitted manufacture in Italy, from its sixteenth-century beginnings with hand-knitted items, through to the adoption in some Italian cities of the knitting frame invented in England at the end of the sixteenth century, and finally discusses the case of Padua where the use of the knitting frame was opposed.

Chapman, S. 1972. ‘The genesis of the British hosiery industry 1600-1750’, Textile History, 3.
Chapman, S. 2002. Hosiery and Knitwear: Four Centuries of Small-Scale Industry in Britain, c.1589-2000. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Croft, P. 1987. ‘The rise of the English stocking export trade’, Textile History, 18.
Dixon-Smith, D. 1990. ‘Concealed shoes’, Archaeological Leather Group Newsletter, 6 (Spring).
Earnshaw, P. 1987. ‘Lace for your shoes: the impractical vanity’, Bulletin of the Needle and Bobbin Club, 70, 21-27.

The article notes the impracticality of the lace rosettes found on early seventeenth-century shoes, and then alludes to a patent of 1933 for machine-made net used on shoes and handbags.

Farrell, J. 1992. Socks and Stockings. London, Batsford.
Flood Kenton, D. 2000. ‘Hand knit hose: a knitted stocking pattern’, Garde Robe Årsbok, 1999, 53-58.

Discussion of hand-knitted stockings including pattern of the Gunnister men’s hose, from Shetland c.1700.

McCarthy, D. 1986. ‘A case study: the treatment of a pair of sixteenth century shoes’, ICCM Bulletin, 12(1-2), 83-87.

A very rare example of 16th-century footwear was restored in the textile conservation and restoration workshop, Fremantle. Linen embroidered shoes with heels became fashionable in the late 16th century when they replaced slip-on, flat shoes. The embroidery, with flower, fruit and bird motifs typical of the Elizabethan period, was in multi-coloured silks and silver threads. The embroidery stitches are described. Silver sequins had also been used but only four remain on one shoe, none on the other. In 1957 the shoe fabric had been consolidated using cmc with o.1% mercuric chloride added as insecticide/fungicide, but this made the shoes stiff and brittle. After analysis and colour fastness tests the labels were removed by moistening the paper and lifting off. Then the shoes were washed. This removed much dirt and cmc. The leather was consolidated, after humidification, with peg 600. The shoes were padded out with silk/dacron, then placed in a box on shapes carved out of polyurethane foam.

Riello, G. 2006. A Foot in the Past: Consumers, Producers and Footwear in the Long Eighteenth Century. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Riello, G. and McNeil, P. 2005. ‘The art and science of walking: mobility, gender and footwear in the long eighteenth century’, Fashion Theory, 9(2), 175-204.

Part of a special section on dress and gender. An analysis of French and English footwear in the so-called long 18th century. The writers shows how in the long 18th century, attitudes towards shoes and their merchandising were inextricably linked to intertwined and gendered notions of nationhood, health, and science. Starting with the physicality of the historical body, they also demonstrate how the changing nature of the built landscape in the cities and towns of Enlightenment Europe led to new relationships between footwear, wearers, and walking. They argue that limitations in enjoying the physical space of the city and town translated themselves into cultural, social, and psychological restraints, thus connecting national debates over fashionability, practicality, health, and the gendered body.

Riello, G. and McNeil, P. eds. 2006. Shoes. A History from Sandals to Sneakers. Oxford, Berg.
Rutt, R. 1993. ‘Queen Elizabeth’s stockings’, Knitting International, 100.
Satchell, J. E. and Wilson, O. 1988. Christopher Wilson of Kendal – An 18th Century Hosier and Banker, Frank Peters Publishing & Kendal Civic Society.
Stevenson, R. B. K. 1990. ‘Betty Burk’s brogues: the making of a relic’, Review of Scottish Culture, 6, 77-80.

Traces stories relating to the brogues of ‘Betty Burk’ (Prince Charles Edward Stuart) from 1746, and concludes that a pair of shoes in Ardblair are the originals.

Swann, J. 1982. Shoes. London, Batsford.
Swann, J. 1996. ‘Shoes concealed in buildings’, Costume, 30, 56-69.

The author considers this practice: its distribution, the types of buildings involved, dates of the shoes (includes shoes from sixteenth to eighteenth centuries), location within building, the shoes themselves and associated finds, superstitions surrounding the practice.

Swann, J. 1998. ‘Historic footwear at the Dresden Armoury: work wear, shoemakers’ samples and East European regional styles’, Waffen-und Kostümkunde, 40, 1-6.

This is the second part of the author’s catalogue of the early shoes in the Dresden Armoury.

Thirsk, J. 1984. ‘The fantastical folly of fashion: the English stocking knitting industry, 1500-1700’. In: J. Thirsk. ed. The Rural Economy of England. Collected Essays, London, Hambledon Press.
Vigeon, E. 1977. ‘Clogs or wooden-soled shoes’, Costume, XI, 1-27.

Traces the history of clogs, using contemporary documentary sources, from the seventeenth to the early twentieth century.

Woodward, D. M. 1967. ‘The Chester leather industry, 1558-1625’, Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, 119, 75-76.
Wykes, D. 1992. ‘The origins and development of the Leicestershire hosiery trade’, Textile History, 23(1), 23-54.

Focuses on the period from the mid-sixteenth to the mid-eighteenth century. Appendix A lists documentary sources; Appendix B lists probate values of Leicestershire stocking-frames 1660-1711.

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8. Jewellery

Arnold, J. ed. 1980. ‘Lost from Her Majesties back’: items of clothing and jewels lost or given away by Queen Elizabeth I between 1561-1585, entered in one of the day books kept for the records of the Wardrobe of Robes. Costume Society Extra Series, Costume Society.
Collins, A. J. 1955. Jewels and Plate of Queen Elizabeth I: the Inventory of 1574. London, British Museum.
Hackenbroch, Y. 1980. Renaissance Jewellery. London, Sotheby Parke Bernet.

Numerous monochrome and colour plates covering all types of jewellery from the late fifteenth to the early seventeenth century.

Hayward, J. 1986. ‘The Arnold Lulls book of jewels and the court jewellers of Queen Anne of Denmark’, Archaeologia, 108, 227-237.
Hunt, J. 1963. ‘Jewelled neck furs and ‘Flohpelze’’, Pantheon, XXI.
Hunter, M. 1993. ‘Mourning jewellery: a collector’s account’, Costume, 27, 9-25.

Main focus is on jewellery of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Includes approximately twenty colour illustrations.

Marshall, R. and Dalgleish, G. eds. 1991. The Art of Jewellery in Scotland. Edinburgh, H.M.S.O.

Published to accompany an exhibition of portraits and jewellery at the Scottish National Portrait Gallery in 1991. Forty of the portraits on display, with forty jewels or groups of jewels, are illustrated. Covers the period from the sixteenth to the twentieth century.

Murdoch, T. V. 1991. Treasures and Trinkets: Jewellery in London from pre-Roman times to the 1930s. London, Museum of London.

A Museum of London Catalogue sponsored by the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths.

Pointon, M. 1999. ‘Jewellery in eighteenth-century England’. In: M. Berg and H. Clifford. eds. Consumers and Luxury: Consumer Culture in Europe 1650-1850, Manchester, Manchester University Press.
Ribeiro, A. 1978. ‘Eighteenth-century jewellery in England’, The Connoisseur (October).
Scarisbrick, D. 1984. Jewellery. London, Batsford.
Scarisbrick, D. 1989. Ancestral Jewels. London, André Deutsch.

Discusses jewellery belonging to royalty, the nobility, and celebrated members of society, from the early sixteenth to the mid-twentieth century.

Scarisbrick, D. 1991. ‘Anne of Denmark’s jewellery inventory’, Archaeologia, 109, 193-238.

Discussion of the jewellery inventory of Anne of Denmark, wife of James I of England.

Scarisbrick, D. 1994. Jewellery in Britain, 1066-1837. A Documentary, Social, Literary and Artistic Survey. Wilby, Norwich, Michael Russell.

Includes discussions of items that may not generally be regarded as jewellery: watch-cases, snuff-boxes, purse-mounts, belts, girdles, small-swords.

Scarisbrick, D. 1995. Tudor and Jacobean Jewellery. London, Tate Publishing.
Somers Cocks, A. ed. 1980. Princely Magnificence: Court Jewels of the Renaissance 1500-1630. London, Debrett’s Peerage in association with the Victoria and Albert Museum.

Exhibition catalogue with numerous colour and monochrome plates.

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9. Fastenings

1981. Catalogue of Shoe and Other Buckles in Northampton Museum, Northampton Borough Council Museums and Art Gallery.
Bryant, N. O. 1988. ‘Buckles and buttons: an enquiry into fastening systems used on eighteenth-century English breeches’, Dress, 14, 27-38.

Based on a study of 78 pairs of men’s breeches in the collections of museums in the UK.

Caple, C. 1991. ‘The detection and definition of an industry: the English Medieval and Post-Medieval pin industry’, Archaeological Journal, 148, 241-255.

Considers the written history of pins and pin manufacture as well as the typological evidence and their metal composition.

Gaimster, D., Hayward, M., et al. 2002. ‘Tudor silver gilt dress hooks: a new class of treasure find in England’, Antiquaries Journal, 82, 157-196.
Hudson, E. 2005. ‘Fastening clothes’, Bulletin of the Costume Society of Scotland, 45, 16-21.
Knight, P. 2004. ‘The Macclesfield Silk Button Industry: The Probate Evidence’, Textile History, 35(2), 157-177.

Most histories of the silk industry in England begin with the arrival of French refugees to Spitalfields in London, yet silk was prepared for embroidery in Macclesfield by the Middle Ages and the silk button trade was well-established by the early modern period. Through the study of probate evidence, this article aims to redress the imbalance in the historiography of the silk industry in England away from the focus on the activities of the Huguenots in the early modern period, and away from the silk weaving in order to show that the silk button industry succeeded not through technical innovation, but through marketing a luxury item in sufficiently small packages to make it accessible to a wide portion of the population. The silk button industry can be viewed as having laid the foundations in east Cheshire for the transformation of the silk industry into weaving cloth in the mid-eighteenth century.

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10. Eyeglasses

Davidson, D. C. 1989. Spectacles, Lorgnettes and Monocles. Princes Risborough, Shire.

Traces the development and use of eyeglasses from the thirteenth century onwards. The chapter on the eighteenth century describes how scissor spectacles, monocles, and quizzing and magnifying glasses became accessories of fashionable dress.

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